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Presented by Entrepreneur Media Inc. Learn more from Robert W. The Digital Marketing Handbook out of 5. By: Author Robert W. About the Author Other Popular Titles. Learn More. Your cart is currently empty. Continue Shopping. Ship to a different address? We were unable to verify the address you provided. Please check the address for errors. Billing Information: Name: Phone: Address:. Ross Quillian and psychologist Elizabeth F. Loftus in various publications, as a formto represent semantically structured knowledge. It extends the network of hyperlinked human-readable web pages byinserting machine-readable metadata about pages and how they are related to each other, enabling automated agentsto access the Web more intelligently and perform tasks on behalf of users.
These are used in various contexts, particularly those dealing with information that encompasses a limitedand defined domain, and where sharing data is a common necessity, such as scientific research or data exchangeamong businesses. In addition, other technologies with similar goals have emerged, such as microformats. PurposeThe main purpose of the Semantic Web is driving the evolution of the current Web by enabling users to find, share,and combine information more easily.
However, machinescannot accomplish all of these tasks without human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by people,not machines.
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The semantic web is a vision of information that can be readily interpreted by machines, so machinescan perform more of the tedious work involved in finding, combining, and acting upon information on the web. Semantic Web 8The Semantic Web is regarded as an integrator across different content, information applications and systems. It hasapplications in publishing, blogging, and many other areas. In particular,these terms are used as everyday terminology by researchers and practitioners, spanning a vast landscape of differentfields, technologies, concepts and application areas.
Furthermore, there is confusion with regard to the current statusof the enabling technologies envisioned to realize the Semantic Web. In a paper presented by Gerber, Barnard andVan der Merwe the Semantic Web landscape is charted and a brief summary of related terms and enablingtechnologies is presented. The architectural model proposed by Tim Berners-Lee is used as basis to present a statusmodel that reflects current and emerging technologies. Documents like mail messages, reports, and brochures are read by humans.
Data, like calendars, addressbooks,playlists, and spreadsheets are presented using an application program which lets them be viewed, searched andcombined in different ways. Currently, the World Wide Web is based mainly on documents written in Hypertext Markup Language HTML , amarkup convention that is used for coding a body of text interspersed with multimedia objects such as images andinteractive forms. There is also no way to express that these pieces ofinformation are bound together in describing a discrete item, distinct from other items perhaps listed on the page.
Layout details are left up to the browser, incombination with Cascading Style Sheets. But this practice falls short ofspecifying the semantics of objects such as items for sale or prices. Microformats represent unofficial attempts to extend HTML syntax to create machine-readable semantic markupabout objects such as retail stores and items for sale.
HTML describes documents and the links between them. These technologies are combined in order to provide descriptions that supplement or replace the content of Webdocuments. The machine-readable descriptions enable contentmanagers to add meaning to the content, i. In this way, a machine can process knowledge itself, instead of text, using processes similar to human deductivereasoning and inference, thereby obtaining more meaningful results and helping computers to perform automatedinformation gathering and research. Berners-Lee posits that if the past was document sharing, the future is data sharing.
One, a URL should point to the data. Two, anyoneaccessing the URL should get data back. Three, relationships in the data should point to additional URLs with data. Web 3.
Thus, we rather imagine how emergence ofthe Semantic Web looks in the future. Meta-WikiThe sites of Wiki type soar. Their administrations and their objectives can be very different. These wikis are moreand more specialized. But most of wikis limit the search engines to index them because these search enginesdecrease the wikis' efficiency and record pages which are obsolete, by definition, outside the wiki perpetual update.
Meta- search-engines are going to aggregate the obtained result by requesting individually at each of these wikis. The wikis become silos of available data for consultation by people and machines through access points triplestore. The companies do not ask any longer for the judicial file of a newemployee. To have information, the companies appeal in a systematic way to engines which are going to interrogateall the sites which reference and index the accessible information on the Web.
The differentiation between searchengines is going to concern the capacity to respond at requests where the sense is going to take more and moreimportance evolution of the requests with keywords towards the semantic requests. The others will have to erase in a systematic way theinformation which could carry disadvantages and which will be more and more accessible.
It will be the sameengines of semantic search which also charge this service. They use tools which can limit the access and the spreading of the informationby their children. A public identity also exists to spread a resume CV , a blog or an avatar for example but the data remain the property of the owner of the server who hosts this data.
So, the mobile telephone provider offers a personal server who will contain one public zone who will automaticallybe copied on the network after every modification. If I want that my resume is not any longer on the network, I justhave to erase it of my public zone from my server. So, the mobile telephone provider creates a controllable silo ofinformation for every public profile. Personal agentIn a few years, the last generation of robot is now mobile and transcribes the human voice. However, it has totransfer the semantic interpretation to more powerful computers.
These servers can so interpret the sense of simplesentences and interrogate other servers to calculate the answer to be given.
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Heordered a pizza by his personal digital agent. His agent is going to send the information to the home server whichwill accept or not the purchase. It refuses because it received the order of the Arthur's parents to buy only awell-balanced menu. So, the home server displays on the TV3D the authorized menus to allow Arthur to choose anew meal.
Marc is a researcher. He has a new idea. He is going to clarify it with hisdigital assistant which is immediately going to show him the incoherence of his demonstration by using theaccessible knowledge in silos on the Web. Marc will be able to modify his reasoning or to find the proofs whichdemonstrate that the existing knowledge is false and so to advance the scientific knowledge within the SemanticWeb. ChallengesSome of the challenges for the Semantic Web include vastness, vagueness, uncertainty, inconsistency, and deceit.
Automated reasoning systems will have to deal with all of these issues in order to deliver on the promise of theSemantic Web. The SNOMED CT medical terminology ontology alone contains , class names, and existing technology has not yet been able to eliminate all semantically duplicated terms. Any automated reasoning system will have to deal with truly huge inputs. This arises from the vagueness of user queries, of concepts represented by content providers, of matching query terms to provider terms and of trying to combine different knowledge bases with overlapping but subtly different concepts.
Fuzzy logic is the most common technique for dealing with vagueness. For example, a patient might present a set of symptoms which correspond to a number of different distinct diagnoses each with a different probability. Probabilistic reasoning techniques are generally employed to address uncertainty. Defeasible reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning are two techniques which can be employed to deal with inconsistency. Cryptography techniques are currently utilized to alleviate this threat. Many of the techniques mentioned here will require extensions to the Web OntologyLanguage OWL for example to annotate conditional probabilities.
This is an area of active research. XML is not at present a necessary component of Semantic Web technologies in most cases, as alternative syntaxes exists, such as Turtle. Turtle is a de facto standard, but has not been through a formal standardization process. An RDF-based modelcan be represented in a variety of syntaxes, e. Many converters to RDF  exist from different applications. Relational databases are an important source. The semantic web server attaches to the existing system without affecting its operation.
This could be machine-understandable information about the human-understandable content of the document such as the creator, title, description, etc. Note that anything that can be identified with a Uniform Resource Identifier URI can be described, so the semantic web can reason about animals, people, places, ideas, etc. Semantic markup is often generated automatically, rather than manually. Which Semantic Web? For example, people may include spurious metadata into Web pages in an attempt to mislead SemanticWeb engines that naively assume the metadata's veracity.
This phenomenon was well-known with metatags thatfooled the AltaVista ranking algorithm into elevating the ranking of certain Web pages: the Google indexing enginespecifically looks for such attempts at manipulation. Between — several scholars have explored the socialpotential of the semantic web in the business and health sectors, and for social networking.
For instance,text-analyzing techniques can now be easily bypassed by using other words, metaphors for instance, or by usingimages in place of words. An advanced implementation of the semantic web would make it much easier forgovernments to control the viewing and creation of online information, as this information would be much easier foran automated content-blocking machine to understand. In addition, the issue has also been raised that, with the use ofFOAF files and geo location meta-data, there would be very little anonymity associated with the authorship ofarticles on things such as a personal blog.
Doubling output formatsAnother criticism of the semantic web is that it would be much more time-consuming to create and publish contentbecause there would need to be two formats for one piece of data: one for human viewing and one for machines. However, many web applications in development are addressing this issue by creating a machine-readable formatupon the publishing of data or the request of a machine for such data.
The development of microformats has beenone reaction to this kind of criticism. Another argument in defense of the feasibility of semantic web is the likelyfalling price of human intelligence tasks in digital labor markets, such as the Amazon Mechanical Turk. ProjectsThis section lists some of the many projects and tools that exist to create Semantic Web solutions. FOAF permits intelligent agents to makesense of the thousands of connections people have with each other, their jobs and the items important to their lives;connections that may or may not be enumerated in searches using traditional web search engines.
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Because theconnections are so vast in number, human interpretation of the information may not be the best way of analyzingthem. FOAF is an example of how the Semantic Web attempts to make use of the relationships within a social context. NextBioA database consolidating high-throughput life sciences experimental data tagged and connected via biomedicalontologies. Nextbio is accessible via a search engine interface. Researchers can contribute their findings forincorporation to the database.
The database currently supports gene or protein expression data and sequence centricdata and is steadily expanding to support other biological data types. November 7, Retrieved November 26, Scientific American Magazine. Retrieved March 26, Nine by Nine. Collins, A; M. Quillian Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior 8 2 : — Ross Quillian Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior 9 4 : — Collins, Allan M. Loftus Psychological Review 82 6 : — Semantic Web 15 Quillian, MR Behavioral Science 12 5 : — Weaving the Web.
International Herald Tribune. Retrieved May 24, February 10, Leslie Sikos. World Wide Web Consortium. Morgan Kaufmann. How to make the Semantic Web more semantic. IOS Press.
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Journal of Economic Methodology. Semantic Days Retrieved July 26, Scientific American. Retrieved March 13, Retrieved April 13, Retrieved February 24, Journal of Information Technology and Politics. Retrieved January 5, In: Adrienne Lehrer u. New essays in semantic and lexical organisation, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N. Ross Quillian: Word concepts. A theory and simulation of some basic semantic capabilities. In: Behavioral Science 12 , S. Ross Quillian: Semantic memory.
In: Marvin Minsky Hrsg. Sowa: Principles of semantic networks. The MIT Press. Passin March 1, Manning Publications. CRC Press. Pollock March 23, For Dummies. This approach allows software to process information intended for end-users such ascontact information, geographic coordinates, calendar events, and the like automatically. The use, adoption and processing of microformats enables data items to be indexed, searched for,saved or cross-referenced, so that information can be reused or combined. While more are still being developed, it appears that other formats such as schema.
These include vote links that express opinions of the linkedpage, which search engines can tally into instant polls. The microformats community functionsthrough an open wiki, a mailing list, and an Internet relay chat IRC channel. With wrapping in spans or other HTML elements with specific class. Other, optional, hCardclasses also exist. Software, such as browser plug-ins, can now extract the information, and transfer it to otherapplications, such as an address book. Specific microformatsSeveral microformats have been developed to enable semantic markup of particular types of information.
Microformat 20Uses of microformatsUsing microformats within HTML code provides additional formatting and semantic data that applications can use. For example, applications such as web crawlers can collect data about on-line resources, or desktop applicationssuch as e-mail clients or scheduling software can compile details.
When hCard or hCalendar are involved, such browser extensionsallow to export them into formats compatible with contact management and calendar utilities, such as MicrosoftOutlook. When dealing with geographical coordinates, they allow to send the location to maps applications such asGoogle Maps.
Query Language can be used to extract microformats from web pages.
They have since extended this to use hCalendar for events and hRecipe forcookery recipes. Similarly, microformats are also consumed by Bing and Yahoo! Together, these are theworld's top three search engines. Additionally, microformats have been compared to other approaches that seek to serve the same orsimilar purpose. Alternative approaches existand are under development as well. For example, the use of XML markup and standards of the Semantic Web arecited as alternative approaches.
It's a hassle. If one wishes to use microformat-style embeddingbut the type of data one wishes to embed does not map to an existing microformat, one can use RDFa to embedarbitrary vocabularies into HTML, for example: embedding domain-specific scientific data on the Web likezoological or chemical data where no microformat for such data exists. Knowledge Wharton. Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Yahoo Developer Network. Guha, Othar Hansson Google Webmaster Central Blog. Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 17 January Web Standards Project. XML Coverpages. Microformats: Empowering Your Markup for Web 2. Friends of ED. Hacking RSS and Atom. O'Reilly Media. Using Microformats. AWeb 2. Examples of Web 2. Whether Web 2. Web 2. The first glimmerings of Web 2. The Web will be understood not as screenfuls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens.
It will [ Herarticle is aimed at designers, reminding them to code for an ever-increasing variety of hardware.
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As such, her use ofthe term hints at, but does not directly relate to, the current uses of the term. The term Web 2. O'Reilly and Battelle contrasted Web 2. They associated Web 1. Control over standards for displaying content and applications in the browser would, in theory, give Netscape the kind of market power enjoyed by Microsoft in the PC market.
O'Reillycontrasted this with Google, a company that did not at the time focus on producing software, such as a browser, butinstead on providing a service based on data such as the links Web page authors make between sites. O'Reilly's Web 2. In the coverstory, Lev Grossman explains: It's a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. It's about the cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the million-channel people's network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace. It's about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world but also change the way the world changes.
Since that time, Web 2. Mass Effect Wiki is an example ofcomputing.
To allow users to continue to interact with the page, communications such as data requests going to the server areseparated from data coming back to the page asynchronously. Otherwise, the user would have to routinely wait forthe data to come back before they can do anything else on that page, just as a user has to wait for a page to completethe reload.
Of Flash's many capabilities, the most commonly used in Web 2. This has allowed for the creation of Web 2. What frameworks do is smooth over inconsistencies between web browsers and extend the functionalityavailable to developers. Many of them also come with customizable, prefabricated 'widgets' that accomplish suchcommon tasks as picking a date from a calendar, displaying a data chart, or making a tabbed panel. On the server side, Web 2. What has begun to change in Web 2. In the early days of the Internet, there waslittle need for different websites to communicate with each other and share data.
When asite's data is available in one of these formats, another website can use it to integrate a portion of that site'sfunctionality into itself, linking the two together. When this design pattern is implemented, it ultimately leads to datathat is both easier to find and more thoroughly categorized, a hallmark of the philosophy behind the Web 2. In brief, Ajax is a key technology used to build Web 2. Then, a language with verygood web services support should be used to build Web 2. In addition, the language used should beiterative meaning that the addition and deployment of features can be easily and quickly achieved.
As such, Web 2. Standards-oriented web browsers may use plug-ins and software extensions to handle thecontent and the user interactions. Links Connects information together into a meaningful information ecosystem using the model of the Web, and provides low-barrier social tools. Authoring The ability to create and update content leads to the collaborative work of many rather than just a few web authors. In wikis, users may extend, undo and redo each other's work.
In blogs, posts and the comments of individuals build up over time. Extensions Software that makes the Web an application platform as well as a document server. Signals The use of syndication technology such as RSS to notify users of content changes. In this way, a new Web 2. It includes discussions ofself-service IT, the long tail of enterprise IT demand, and many other consequences of the Web 2. The report also makes many sensible recommendations around starting small with pilot projects andmeasuring results, among a fairly long list. The social web consists of a number of online tools and platforms where people share their perspectives, opinions,thoughts and experiences.
A reader of a blog or a wiki is provided with tools to add a comment or even, in the case of the wiki, to edit the content. Talis believes that Library 2.
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Many of the other proponents of new 2. The meaning of web 2. McDonalds noted. For example, some use Web 2. A growing number of marketers are using Web 2. Companies can use Web 2. Among other things, company employees have created wikis—Web sites that allow users to add, delete, and edit content — to list answers to frequently asked questions about each product, and consumers have added significant contributions. Another marketing Web 2. Saturating media hubs—like The New York Times, PC Magazine and Business Week — with links to popular new web sites and services, is critical to achieving the threshold for mass adoption of those services.
Networks such as Twitter, Yelp and Facebook are now becoming common elements of multichannel and customer loyalty strategies, and banks are beginning to use these sites proactively to spread their messages. In a recent article for Bank Technology News, Shane Kite describes how Citigroup's Global Transaction Services unit monitors social media outlets to address customer issues and improve products.
As new businesses grow and develop, new technology is used to decrease the gap between businesses and customers. Social networks have become more intuitive and user friendly to provide information that is easily reached by the end user. For example, companies use Twitter to offer customers coupons and discounts for products and services. The lack of participation in a traditional classroom stems more from the factthat students receive better feedback online. Traditional classrooms have students do assignments and when they arecompleted, they are just that, finished. However, Web 2. Whether it is participating in a class discussion, or participating in a forum discussion, the technologiesavailable to students in a Web 2.
According to Collins andHalverson, the self-publishing aspects as well as the speed with which their work becomes available for consumptionallows teachers to give students the control they need over their learning. This control is the preparation students willneed to be successful as learning expands beyond the classroom.
One of the many implications of Web 2. Instead, Russell and Sorge conclude that integrating technology intoinstruction tends to move classrooms from teacher-dominated environments to ones that are more student-centered. While it is still important for them to monitor what students are discussing, the actual topics of learning are beingguided by the students themselves. One of the biggest shifts that WillRichardson points out in his book Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms is thefact that education must be not only socially but collaboratively constructed.
This means that students, in a Web 2. By making the shift to a Web 2. In fact, there are many ways for educators to use Web 2. Instead they are comprised of reflections and conversations thatin many cases are updated every day [ Weblogs give students apublic space to interact with one another and the content of the class. As long as the students are invested in theproject, the need to see the blog progress acts as motivation as the blog itself becomes an entity that can demandinteraction. For example, Laura Rochette implemented the use of blogs in her American History class and noted that in additionto an overall improvement in quality, the use of the blogs as an assignment demonstrated synthesis level activityfrom her students.
She used the WANDAproject and asked students to make personal connections to the texts they read and to describe and discuss the issuesraised in literature selections through social discourse. They engaged in the discussion via wikis and other Web 2. The research shows that students are already using these technological tools, but they still are expected to go to aschool where using these tools is frowned upon or even punished. If educators are able to harness the power of theWeb 2.